• Wood(from standing timber):3-7MJ(830 to 1,950 watt-hours).
  • Steel(from recycled steel):6-15MJ(1,665 to 4,170 watt-hours).
  • Aluminum(from 100 % recycled aluminum):11.35-17MJ(3,150 to 4,750
    watt-hours)
  • Iron(from iron ore):20-25MJ(5,550 to 6,950 watt-hours)
  • Glass(from sand, etcetera):18-35MJ(5,000 to 9,700 watt-hours)
  • Steel(from iron):20-50MJ(5,550 to 13,900 watt-hours)
  • Paper(from standing timber):25-50MJ(6,950 to 13,900 watt-hours)
  • Plastics(from crude oil):62-108MJ(17,200 to 31,950 watt-hours)
  • Copper(from sulfide ore):60-125MJ(16,600 to 34,700 watt-hours)
  • Aluminum(from a typical mix of 80% virgin and 20% recycled aluminum):219 MJ(60,800 watt-hours)
  • Silicon(from silica):230-235MJ(63,900 to 65,300 watt-hours)
  • Nickel(from ore concentrate):230-270MJ(63,900 to 75,000 watt-hours)
  • Aluminum(from bauxite):227-342MJ(63,000 to 95,000 watt-hours)
  • Titanium(from ore concentrate):900-940MJ(250,000 to 261,000 watt-hours)
  • Electronic grade silicon(CVD process):7,590-7,755MJ(2,108,700 to 2,154,900 watt-hours).

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Note:1 megajoule (MJ)=277.77 watt-hour (Wh)Source:Environmentally benign manufacturing.

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