Introduction

On December 17th 2012, I got a nice letter fromMark
Mayzner
, a retired 85-year-old researcher who studied the
frequency of letter combinations in English words in the early 1960s.
His1965 publicationhas been cited in hundreds of articles.
Mayzner describes his work:


I culled a corpus of 20,000 words from a variety of sources, e.g.,
newspapers, magazines, books, etc. For each source selected, a
starting place was chosen at random. In proceeding forward from this
point, all three, four, five, six, and seven-letter words were
recorded until a total of 200 words had been selected. This procedure
was duplicated 100 times, each time with a different source, thus
yielding a grand total of 20,000 words. This sample broke down as
follows: three-letter words, 6,807 tokens, 187 types; four-letter
words, 5,456 tokens, 641 types; five-letter words, 3,422 tokens, 856
types; six-letter words, 2,264 tokens, 868 types; seven-letter words,
2,051 tokens, 924 types. I then proceeded to construct tables that
showed the frequency counts for three, four, five, six, and
seven-letter words, but most importantly, broken down by word length
and letter position, which had never been done before to my knowledge.

and he wonders if:


perhaps your group at Google
might be interested in using the computing power that is now available
to significantly expand and produce such tables as I constructed some
50 years ago, but now using the Google Corpus Data, not the tiny
20,000 word sample that I used.

The answer is: yes indeed, I am interested! And it will be a lot
easier for me than it was for Mayzner. Working 60s-style, Mayzner had to gather his
collection of text sources, then go through them and select individual
words, punch them onHollerith
cards
, and use acard-sorting machine.

Here’s what we can do with today’s computing power (using publicly
available data and the processing power of my own personal computer;
I’m not relying on access to corporate computing power):

  1. I consulted the Google
    books Ngrams
    raw data set, which gives word
    counts of the number of times each word is mentioned
    (broken down by year of publication) in the books that have been scanned by Google.

  2. I downloaded the English Version 20120701 “1-grams” (that is,
    word counts) from that data set given as the files “a” to “z” (that
    is,
    http://storage.googleapis.com/books/ngrams/books/googlebooks-eng-all-1gram-20120701-a.gz
    to
    http://storage.googleapis.com/books/ngrams/books/googlebooks-eng-all-1gram-20120701-z.gz).
    I unzipped each file; the result is 23 GB of text (so don’t try to
    download them on your phone).

  3. I then condensed these entries, combining the counts for all
    years, and for different capitalizations: “word”, “Word” and “WORD”
    were all recorded under “WORD”. I discarded any entry that used a
    character other than the 26 letters A-Z. I also discarded any word
    with fewer than 100,000 mentions. (If you want you can download the
    word count file; note that
    it is 1.5 MB.)

  4. I generated tables of counts, first for words, then for letters
    and letter sequences, keyed off of the positions and word lengths.

Word Counts

My distillation of the Google books data gives us 97,565 distinct words, which were mentioned
743,842,922,321 times (37 million times more than in Mayzner’s
20,000-mention collection). Each distinct word is called a “type”
and each mention is called a “token.” To no surprise, the most common word is
“the”. Here are the top 50 words, with their counts (in billions of
mentions) and their overall percentage (looking like a Zipf
distribution):

WORD    COUNT  PERCENT bar graph
the     53.10 B  7.14%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 1the
of      30.97 B  4.16%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 2of
and     22.63 B  3.04%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 3and
to      19.35 B  2.60%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 4to
in      16.89 B  2.27%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 5in
a       15.31 B  2.06%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6a
is       8.38 B  1.13%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 7is
that     8.00 B  1.08%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8that
for      6.55 B  0.88%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 9for
it       5.74 B  0.77%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 10it
as       5.70 B  0.77%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 11as
was      5.50 B  0.74%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 12was
with     5.18 B  0.70%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 13with
be       4.82 B  0.65%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 14be
by       4.70 B  0.63%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 15by
on       4.59 B  0.62%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 16on
not      4.52 B  0.61%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 16not
he       4.11 B  0.55%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 18he
i        3.88 B  0.52%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 19i
this     3.83 B  0.51%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 19this
are      3.70 B  0.50%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 21are
or       3.67 B  0.49%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 21or
his      3.61 B  0.49%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 23his
from     3.47 B  0.47%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 24from
at       3.41 B  0.46%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 25at
which    3.14 B  0.42%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 26which
but      2.79 B  0.38%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 27but
have     2.78 B  0.37%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 27have
an       2.73 B  0.37%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 29an
had      2.62 B  0.35%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 30had
they     2.46 B  0.33%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 31they
you      2.34 B  0.31%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 32you
were     2.27 B  0.31%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 33were
their    2.15 B  0.29%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 34their
one      2.15 B  0.29%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 34one
all      2.06 B  0.28%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 36all
we       2.06 B  0.28%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 36we
can      1.67 B  0.22%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 38can
her      1.63 B  0.22%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39her
has      1.63 B  0.22%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39has
there    1.62 B  0.22%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39there
been     1.62 B  0.22%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39been
if       1.56 B  0.21%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39if
more     1.55 B  0.21%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39more
when     1.52 B  0.20%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 45when
will     1.49 B  0.20%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 45will
would    1.47 B  0.20%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 45would
who      1.46 B  0.20%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 45who
so       1.45 B  0.19%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 45so
no       1.40 B  0.19%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 50no

Word Lengths

And here is the breakdown of mentions (in millions) by word length
(looking like a Poisson distribution). The average is 4.79
letters per word, and 80% are between 2 and 7 letters long:

LEN    COUNT   PERCENT bar graph
 1  22301.22 M  2.998%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 511
 2 131293.85 M 17.651%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 522
 3 152568.38 M 20.511%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 533
 4 109988.33 M 14.787%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 544
 5  79589.32 M 10.700%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 555
 6  62391.21 M  8.388%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 566
 7  59052.66 M  7.939%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 577
 8  44207.29 M  5.943%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 588
 9  33006.93 M  4.437%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 599
10  22883.84 M  3.076%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6010
11  13098.06 M  1.761%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 1311
12   7124.15 M  0.958%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 2712
13   3850.58 M  0.518%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 4513
14   1653.08 M  0.222%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6414
15    565.24 M  0.076%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6515
16    151.22 M  0.020%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6616
17     72.81 M  0.010%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6617
18     28.62 M  0.004%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6618
19      8.51 M  0.001%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6619
20      6.35 M  0.001%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6620
21      0.13 M  0.000%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6621
22      0.81 M  0.000%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6622
23      0.32 M  0.000%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6623

Here is the distribution for distinct words (that is, counting each
word only once regardless of how many times it is mentioned).
Now the average is 7.60
letters long, and 80% are between 4 and 10 letters long:

LEN  COUNT PERCENT bar graph
 1      26  0.027%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 741
 2     662  0.679%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 292
 3   4,615  4.730%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 763
 4   6,977  7.151%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 774
 5  10,541 10.804%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 785
 6  13,341 13.674%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 796
 7  14,392 14.751%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 807
 8  13,284 13.616%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 818
 9  11,079 11.356%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 829
10   8,468  8.679%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8310
11   5,769  5.913%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8411
12   3,700  3.792%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8512
13   2,272  2.329%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8613
14   1,202  1.232%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 1414
15     668  0.685%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 2915
16     283  0.290%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8916
17     158  0.162%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6417
18      64  0.066%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6518
19      40  0.041%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 7419
20      16  0.016%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6620
21       1  0.001%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6621
22       5  0.005%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6622
23       2  0.002%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 6623

Here are the 24 words with length of 20 or more (that are mentioned at
least 100,000 times each in the book corpus):

electroencephalographic          radiopharmaceuticals
polytetrafluoroethylene		 electroencephalogram
forschungsgemeinschaft		 keratoconjunctivitis
deinstitutionalization		 counterrevolutionary
counterrevolutionaries		 immunohistochemistry
dehydroepiandrosterone		 internationalisation
electroencephalography		 hypercholesterolemia
immunoelectrophoresis		 phosphatidylinositol
institutionalisation		 compartmentalization
acetylcholinesterase		 electrophysiological
internationalization		 electrocardiographic
institutionalization		 uncharacteristically

Letter Counts

Enough of words; let’s get back to Mayzner’s request and look at letter counts. There were
3,563,505,777,820 letters mentioned.
Here they are in frequency order:

LET COUNT PERCENT bar graph
E 445.2 B  12.49%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 97E
T 330.5 B   9.28%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 98T
A 286.5 B   8.04%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 99A
O 272.3 B   7.64%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 100O
I 269.7 B   7.57%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 101I
N 257.8 B   7.23%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 102N
S 232.1 B   6.51%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 4S
R 223.8 B   6.28%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 104R
H 180.1 B   5.05%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 85H
L 145.0 B   4.07%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 106L
D 136.0 B   3.82%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 107D
C 119.2 B   3.34%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 108C
U  97.3 B   2.73%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8U
M  89.5 B   2.51%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 110M
F  85.6 B   2.40%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 111F
P  76.1 B   2.14%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 112P
G  66.6 B   1.87%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 113G
W  59.7 B   1.68%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 114W
Y  59.3 B   1.66%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 14Y
B  52.9 B   1.48%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 116B
V  37.5 B   1.05%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 117V
K  19.3 B   0.54%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 39K
X   8.4 B   0.23%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 119X
J   5.7 B   0.16%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 120J
Q   4.3 B   0.12%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 121Q
Z   3.2 B   0.09%English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 65Z

Note there is a standard order of frequency used by typesetters,
ETAOIN SHRDLU, that is slightly violated here: L, R, and C have
all moved up one rank, giving us the less mnemonic ETAOIN SRHLDCU.

In the colored-bar chart below (inspired by the Wikipedia article onLetter
Frequency
), the frequency of each letter is proportional to the
length of the color bar. If you hover the mouse over each color bar, you
can see the exact percentages and counts. (This is the same
information as in the table above, presented in a different way.)

Now we show the letter frequencies by
position within word. That is, the frequencies for just the first letter in
each word, just the second letter, and so on. We also show
frequencies for positions relative to the end of the word: “-1” means
the last letter, “-2” means the second to last, and so on. We can see
that the frequencies vary quite a bit; for example, “e” is uncommon as
the first letter (4 times less frequent than elsewhere);
similarly “n” is 3 times less common as the first letter than it is overall.
The letter “e” makes a comeback as the most
common last letter (and also very common at 3rd and 5th letter
places). The most common first letter is “t” and the most common
second letter is “o”.

 1 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 123eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 124tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 125aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 126oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 127iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 128nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 129sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 130rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 131hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 132lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 133dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 134cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 135uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 136mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 137fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 138pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 139gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 140wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 141yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 142bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 143vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 146jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 147qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 2 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 149eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 150tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 151aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 152oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 127iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 154nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 155sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 156rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 157hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 158lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 159dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 160cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 161uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 162mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 163fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 164pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 165gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 167yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 168bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 159vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 171xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 3 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 175eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 176tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 177aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 178oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 179iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 180nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 181sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 182rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 141hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 142lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 185dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 186cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 187uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 188mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 189fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 128pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 191gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 192wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 193yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 194bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 195vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 196kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 197xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 4 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 201eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 202tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 203aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 204oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 205iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 185nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 207sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 156rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 209hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 210lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 211dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 212cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 213uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 214mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 215fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 216pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 217gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 135wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 219yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 220bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 164vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 191kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 5 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 227eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 176tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 140aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 230oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 231iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 185nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 181sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 234rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 214hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 236lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 237dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 238cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 239uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 240mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 168fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 242pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 243gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 245yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 168bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 143vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 248kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 6 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 253eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 254tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 255aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 256oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 257iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 258nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 259sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 260rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 261hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 262lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 263dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 264cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 265uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 266mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 220fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 268pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 269gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 171wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 271yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 194bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 164vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

 7 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 279eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 280tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 177aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 282oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 283iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 284nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 285sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 140rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 287hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 179lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 289dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 150cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 291uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 292mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 168fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 268pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 212gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 297yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 298bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 159vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 304z

-7 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 154eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 306tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 307aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 308oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 309iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 310nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 311sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 312rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 256hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 314lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 123dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 316cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 213uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 136mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 319fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 320pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 217gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 322wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 323yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 324bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 325vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 165kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 327xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-6 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 149eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 332tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 333aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 308oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 127iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 336nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 316sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 338rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 339hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 163lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 128dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 134cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 161uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 136mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 345fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 346pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 347gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 348wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 158bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 351vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 165kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 323jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 147qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-5 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 357eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 358tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 359aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 360oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 361iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 310nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 332sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 364rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 365hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 262lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 367dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 134cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 161uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 339mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 371fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 372pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 373gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 374wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 141yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 371bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 268vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 197xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 323jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 147qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-4 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 383eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 384tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 385aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 386oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 205iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 289nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 389sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 390rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 391hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 163lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 216dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 150cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 395uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 282mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 397fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 367pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 139gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 400wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 162yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 402bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 242vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 248kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-3 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 409eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 410tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 411aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 412oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 413iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 414nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 243sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 416rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 417hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 324lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 325dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 217cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 421uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 245mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 423fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 164pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 425gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 426wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 141yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 423bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 429vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 144kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-2 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 435eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 316tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 182aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 438oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 439iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 440nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 441sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 140rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 443hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 444lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 242dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 150cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 447uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 245mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 147fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 451gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 452wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 323yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 189bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 164vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 196kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

-1 English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 461eEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 358tEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 130aEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 131oEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 298iEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 409nEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 467sEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 156rEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 469hEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 470lEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 357dEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 196cEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145uEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 240mEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 475fEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 159pEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 477gEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 452wEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 178yEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173bEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148vEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 248kEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 145xEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 172jEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 173qEnglish Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 148z

Two-Letter Sequence (Bigram) Counts

Now we turn to sequences of letters: consecutive letters anywhere
within a word. In the list below are the 50 most frequent two-letter sequences
(which are called “bigrams”):

BI  COUNT   PERCENT bar graph
TH  100.3 B (3.56%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 487TH
HE   86.7 B (3.07%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 488HE
IN   68.6 B (2.43%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 489IN
ER   57.8 B (2.05%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 490ER
AN   56.0 B (1.99%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 491AN
RE   52.3 B (1.85%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 98RE
ON   49.6 B (1.76%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 493ON
AT   41.9 B (1.49%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 494AT
EN   41.0 B (1.45%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 495EN
ND   38.1 B (1.35%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 496ND
TI   37.9 B (1.34%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 497TI
ES   37.8 B (1.34%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 498ES
OR   36.0 B (1.28%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 499OR
TE   34.0 B (1.20%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 500TE
OF   33.1 B (1.17%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 501OF
ED   32.9 B (1.17%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 502ED
IS   31.8 B (1.13%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 503IS
IT   31.7 B (1.12%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 504IT
AL   30.7 B (1.09%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 505AL
AR   30.3 B (1.07%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 506AR
ST   29.7 B (1.05%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 507ST
TO   29.4 B (1.04%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 508TO
NT   29.4 B (1.04%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 508NT
NG   26.9 B (0.95%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 510NG
SE   26.3 B (0.93%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 511SE
HA   26.1 B (0.93%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 512HA
AS   24.6 B (0.87%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 513AS
OU   24.5 B (0.87%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 513OU
IO   23.5 B (0.83%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 515IO
LE   23.4 B (0.83%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 516LE
VE   23.3 B (0.83%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 517VE
CO   22.4 B (0.79%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 518CO
ME   22.4 B (0.79%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 519ME
DE   21.6 B (0.76%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 107DE
HI   21.5 B (0.76%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 107HI
RI   20.5 B (0.73%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 522RI
RO   20.5 B (0.73%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 522RO
IC   19.7 B (0.70%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 524IC
NE   19.5 B (0.69%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 525NE
EA   19.4 B (0.69%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 525EA
RA   19.3 B (0.69%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 527RA
CE   18.4 B (0.65%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 528CE
LI   17.6 B (0.62%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 86LI
CH   16.9 B (0.60%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 51CH
LL   16.3 B (0.58%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 531LL
BE   16.2 B (0.58%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 531BE
MA   15.9 B (0.57%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 533MA
SI   15.5 B (0.55%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 534SI
OM   15.4 B (0.55%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8OM
UR   15.3 B (0.54%)English Letter Frequency Counts: Mayzner Revisited or ETAOIN SRHLDCU (2013) 8UR

Below is a table
of all 26 × 26=676 bigrams; in each cell the orange bar is proportional to the
frequency, and if you hover you can see the exact counts and
percentage. There are only seven bigrams that do not
occur among the 2.8 trillion mentions: JQ, QG, QK, QY, QZ, WQ, and WZ.
If you look closely you see they are shown asdeleted.

N-Letter Sequences (N-grams)

What are the most common n-letter sequences (called “n-grams”) for
various values of n? You can see the 50 most common for each value of
n from 1 to 9 in the table below. The counts and percentages are not
shown, but don’t worry — you’ll get lots of counts in the next
section.


1 2grams  3grams  4-grams   5-grams    6-grams     7-grams      8-grams       9-grams  
e     th     the     tion     ation     ations     present     differen     different
t     he     and     atio     tions     ration     ational     national     governmen
a     in     ing     that     which     tional     through     consider     overnment
o     er     ion     ther     ction     nation     between     position     formation
i     an     tio     with     other     ection     ication     ifferent     character
n     re     ent     ment     their     cation     differe     governme     velopment
s     on     ati     ions     there     lation     ifferen     vernment     developme
r     at     for     this     ition     though     general     overnmen     evelopmen
h     en     her     here     ement     presen     because     interest     condition
l     nd     ter     from     inter     tation     develop     importan     important
d     ti     hat     ould     ional     should     america     ormation     articular
c     es     tha     ting     ratio     resent     however     formatio     particula
u     or     ere     hich     would     genera     eration     relation     represent
m     te     ate     whic     tiona     dition     nationa     question     individua
f     of     his     ctio     these     ationa     conside     american     ndividual
p     ed     con     ence     state     produc     onsider     characte     relations
g     is     res     have     natio     throug     ference     haracter     political
w     it     ver     othe     thing     hrough     positio     articula     informati
y     al     all     ight     under     etween     osition     possible     nformatio
b     ar     ons     sion     ssion     betwee     ization     children     universit
v     st     nce     ever     ectio     differ     fferent     elopment     following
k     to     men     ical     catio     icatio     without     velopmen     experienc
x     nt     ith     they     latio     people     ernment     developm     stitution
j     ng     ted     inte     about     iffere     vernmen     evelopme     xperience
q     se     ers     ough     count     fferen     overnme     conditio     education
z     ha     pro     ance     ments     struct     governm     ondition     roduction
      as     thi     were     rough     action     ulation     mportant     niversity
      ou     wit     tive     ative     person     another     rticular     therefore
      io     are     over     prese     eneral     importa     particul     nstitutio
      le     ess     ding     feren     system     interes     epresent     ification
      ve     not     pres     hough     relati     nterest     represen     establish
      co     ive     nter     ution     ctions     elation     increase     understan
      me     was     comp     roduc     ecause     rmation     individu     nderstand
      de     ect     able     resen     becaus     mportan     ndividua     difficult
      hi     rea     heir     thoug     before     product     dividual     structure
      ri     com     thei     press     ession     formati     elations     knowledge
      ro     eve     ally     first     develo     communi     nformati     struction
      ic     per     ated     after     evelop     lations     politica     something
      ne     int     ring     cause     uction     ormatio     olitical     necessary
      ea     est     ture     where     change     certain     universi     hemselves
      ra     sta     cont     tatio     follow     increas     function     themselve
      ce     cti     ents     could     positi     relatio     informat     plication
      li     ica     cons     efore     govern     special     niversit     anization
      ch     ist     rati     contr     sition     process     iversity     according
      ll     ear     thin     hould     merica     against     lication     differenc
      be     ain     part     shoul     direct     problem     experien     operation
      ma     one     form     tical     bility     nstitut     structur     ifference
      si     our     ning     gener     effect     politic     determin     rganizati
      om     iti     ecti     esent     americ     ination     ollowing     organizat
      ur     rat     some     great     public     univers     followin     ganizatio

N-gram Counts by Word Length and Position within Word

Finally we are ready to break out the results by n-gram length, by
position within word (as we did for letter counts), and also by word
length. You will be able to get counts for, say, the number of times
the bigram “he” appears in positions 2 through 3 of 4-letter words,
for example. This is the kind of tables provided by Mayzner, but with
37 million times more data (and with a few more columns). The tables
are large, so we present them in separate files; for each n-gram
length from n=1 to n=9, we offer a Google Fusion Table file; you can
browse the table online, or download it (with the “File>Download” menu item).
We also offer all the files rolled up
into a .zip file, or in a fusion table folder:

NTypesMentionsFusion TableFile Size
1263,563,505,777,820ngrams120 KB
26692,819,662,855,499ngrams2280 KB
38,6532,098,121,156,991ngrams32 MB
442,1711,507,873,312,542ngrams46 MB
593,7131,070,193,846,800ngrams510 MB
6114,565742,502,715,592ngrams610 MB
7104,610494,400,907,903ngrams78 MB
882,347308,690,305,624ngrams85 MB
959,030182,032,364,549ngrams93 MB
*505,78412,786,983,243,320ngrams-all.tsv.zip
Fusion Table Folder
11 MB

N-gram column notation

Each column is given a name of the form “wordlength/
start:end“. For example, “4/2:3” means that
the column counts the number of ngrams that occur in 4 letter words
(such as “then”), and only in position 2 through 3 (such as the “he”
in “then”). We aggregate counts with a notation involving a “*”: the
notation “*/2:3” refers to the second through third position within
words of any length; “4/*” refers to any start positions in words of
length 4; and “*/*” means any start position within words of any
length. Finally, we also aggregate counts for positions near the ends
of words: the notation “*/-3:-2” means the third-to-last through
second-to-last position in words of any length (for example, this
would be the bigram “he” for the words “hen”, “then”, “lexicographer”,
and “greatgrandfather”).

Closing Thoughts

Technology has certainly changed. Here’s where you would typically see
a comparison saying that if you punched the 743 billion words one to a
card and stacked them up, then assuming 100 cards per inch, the stack
would be 100,000 miles high; nearly halfway to the moon. But that’s
silly, because the stack would topple over long before then. If I had
743 billion cards, what I would do is stack them up in a big building,
like, say, the

Vehicle
Assembly Building
(VAB) at Kennedy Space Center, which has a
capacity of 3.6 million cubic meters. The cardswork
out
to only 2.9 million cubic meters; easy peasy; room to spare. And an IBM model 84 card sorter could blast through these at a rate of 2000 cards per minute, which means it would only take 700 years per pass (but you’d need multiple passes to get the whole job done).

Aren’t you glad I’m providing these tables online, rather than on cards?
If you use these tables to do some interesting analysis, leave a comment to let us know. Enjoy!


Peter Norvig

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